Challoner commentary

Exodus 19 : 3

And Moses went up to God

Moses went up to mount Sinai, where God spoke to him.

Exodus 20 : 4

A graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing

All such images, or likenesses, are forbidden by this commandment, as are made to be adored and served; according to that which immediately follows, thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them. That is, all such as are designed for idols or image-gods, or are worshipped with divine honour. But otherwise images, pictures, or representations, even in the house of God, and in the very sanctuary so far from being forbidden, are expressly authorized by the word of God. See Ex. 25. 15, and etc.; chap. 38. 7; Num. 21. 8, 9; 1 Chron. or Paralip. 28. 18, 19; 2 Chron. or Paralip. 3. 10.

Exodus 21 : 6

To the gods

Elohim. That is, to the judges, or magistrates, authorized by God.

Exodus 24 : 4

Titles

That is, pillars.

Exodus 24 : 5

Holocausts

Whole burnt offerings, in which the whole sacrifice was consumed with fire upon the altar.

Exodus 25 : 2

Firstfruits

Offerings of some of the best and choicest of their goods.

Exodus 25 : 5

Setim wood

The wood of a tree that grows in the wilderness, which is said to be incorruptible.

Exodus 25 : 7

The ephod and the rational

The ephod was the high priest's upper vestment; and the rational his breastplate, in which were twelve gems, etc.

Exodus 25 : 17

A propitiatory

a covering for the arkcalled a propitiatory, or mercy seat, because the Lord, who was supposed to sit there upon the wings of the cherubims, with the ark for his footstool, from thence shewed mercy. It is also called the oracle, ver. 18 and 20; because from thence God gave his orders and his answers.

Exodus 25 : 23

A table

On which were to be placed the twelve loaves of propositionor, as they are called in the Hebrew, the face bread, because they were always to stand before the face of the Lord in his templeas a figure of the eucharistic sacrifice and sacrament, in the church of Christ.

Exodus 25 : 29

Libations

That is, drink offerings.

Exodus 25 : 31

A candlestick

This candlestick, with its seven lamps, which was always to give light in the house of God, was a figure of the light of the Holy Ghost, and his sevenfold grace, in the sanctuary of the church of Christ.

Exodus 26 : 33

The sanctuary

That part of the tabernacle, which was without the veil, into which the priests daily entered, is here called the sanctuary, or holy place; that part which was within the veil, into which no one but the high priest ever went, and he but once a year, is called the holy of holies, (literally, the sanctuary of the sanctuaries,) as being the most holy of all holy places.

Exodus 28 : 15

The rational of judgment

This part of the priest's attire, which he wore at his breast, was called the rational of judgment; partly because it admonished both priest and people of their duty to God, by carrying the names of all their tribes in his presence; and by the Urim and the Thummim, that is, doctrine and truth, which were written upon it; and partly because it gave divine answers and oracles, as if it were rational and endowed with judgment.

Exodus 28 : 30

Doctrine and Truth

Hebrew, Urim and Thummimilluminations and perfections. These words, written on the rational, seem to signify the light of doctrine and the integrity of life, with which the priests of God ought to approach him.

Exodus 30 : 1

An altar to burn incense

This burning of incense was an emblem of prayer, ascending to God from an inflamed heart. See Ps. 140. 2; Apoc. 5. 8, and 8. 4.

Exodus 30 : 13

Half a sicle

A sicle or shekel of silver, (which was also called a stater,) according to the standard or weight of the sanctuary, which was the most just and exact, was half an ounce of silver, that is, about half a crown of English money. The obol, or gerah, was about three halfpence.

Exodus 32 : 25

Naked

Having lost not only their gold, and their honour, but what was worst of all, being stripped also of the grace of God, and having lost him.

Exodus 32 : 25

The shame of the filth

That is, of the idol, which they had taken for their god. It is the usual phrase of the scripture to call idols filth and abominations.

Exodus 33 : 11

Face to face

That is, in a most familiar manner. Though as we learn from this very chapter, Moses could not see the face of the Lord.