Challoner commentary

Exodus 4 : 21

I shall harden

Not by being the efficient cause of his sin; but by withdrawing from him, for his just punishment, the dew of grace that might have softened his heart; and so suffering him to grow harder and harder.

Exodus 4 : 24

The Lord met him, and would have killed him

This was an angel representing the Lord, who treated Moses in this manner, for having neglected the circumcision of his younger son; which his wife understanding, circumcised her child upon the spot, upon which the angel let Moses go.

Exodus 6 : 3

My name Adonai

The name, which is in the Hebrew text, is that most proper name of God, which signifieth his eternal, self-existent being, Ex. 3. 14, which the Jews out of reverence never pronounce; but, instead of it, whenever it occurs in the Bible, they read Adonai, which signifies the Lord; and, therefore, they put the points or vowels, which belong to the name Adonai, to the four letters of that other ineffable name Jod, He, Vau, He. Hence some moderns have framed the name Jehovah, unknown to all the ancients, whether Jews or Christians; for the true pronunciation of the name, which is in the Hebrew text, by long disuse, is now quite lost.

Exodus 6 : 12

Uncircumcised lips

So he calls the defect he had in his words, or utterance.

Exodus 7 : 1

The god of Pharao

Viz., to be his judge; and to exercise a divine power, as God's instrument, over him and his people.

Exodus 7 : 3

I shall harden

not by being the efficient cause of his hardness of heart, but by permitting it; and by withdrawing grace from him, in punishment of his malice; which alone was the proper cause of his being hardened.

Exodus 7 : 11


Jannes, and Mambres, or Jambres, 2 Tim. 3. 8.

Exodus 8 : 8

Pray ye to the Lord

By this it appears, that though the magicians, by the help of the devil, could bring frogs, yet they could not take them awayGod being pleased to abridge in this the power of Satan. So we see they could not afterwards produce the lesser insects; and in this restraint of the power of the devil, were forced to acknowledge the finger of God.

Exodus 8 : 15

Hardened his own heart

By this we see that Pharao was himself the efficient cause of his heart being hardened, and not God.-- See the same repeated in ver. 32. Pharao hardened his heart at this time alsolikewise chap. 9. 7, 35, and chap. 13. 15.

Exodus 8 : 16


Or Cinifs, Hebrew Chinnim, small flying insects, very troublesome both to men and beast.

Exodus 8 : 26

The abominations

That is, the things they worship for Godsoxen, rams, etc. It is the usual style of the scriptures to call all idols and false gods, abominations, to signify how much the people of God ought to detest and abhor them.

Exodus 9 : 6

All the beasts

That is, many of all kinds.

Exodus 9 : 12


See the annotations above, chap. 4. 21, chap. 7. 3, and chap. 8. 15.

Exodus 10 : 21

Darkness upon the land of Egypt, so thick that it may be felt

By means of the gross exhalations, which were to cause and accompany the darkness.

Exodus 11 : 10

The Lord hardened

See the annotations above, chap. 4. 21, and chap. 7. 3.

Exodus 12 : 5

A kid

The phase might be performed, either with a lamb or with a kidand all the same rites and ceremonies were to be used with the one as with the other.

Exodus 12 : 18

Unleavened bread

By this it appears, that our Saviour made use of unleavened bread, in the institution of the blessed sacrament, which was on the evening of the paschal solemnity, at which time there was no leavened bread to be found in Israel.

Exodus 12 : 22


This sprinkling the doors of the Israelites with the blood of the paschal lamb, in order to their being delivered from the sword of the destroying angel, was a lively figure of our redemption by the blood of Christ.

Exodus 13 : 2

Sanctify unto me every firstborn

Sanctification in this place means that the firstborn males of the Hebrews should be deputed to the ministry in the divine worship; and the firstborn of beasts to be given for a sacrifice.

Exodus 14 : 20

A dark cloud, and enlightening the night

It was a dark cloud to the Egyptians; but enlightened the night to the Israelites by giving them a great light.